diet and nutrition


Adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet and occurrence of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction. PDF Print E-mail

Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet and occurrence of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction.
Oliveira A, Lopes C, Rodríguez-Artalejo F.
Department of HygieneEpidemiologyCardiovascular Research & Development Unit University of Porto Medical School Porto Portugal.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEAD) is the traditional diet in northern Portugal and Galicia, a region in northwest Spain. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between adherence to the SEAD and the occurrence of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN: This was a population-based case-control study in Porto, Portugal. Cases were patients aged >/=18 y who were hospitalized with an incident AMI (n = 820), and controls were individuals without AMI selected at random from the resident population of the participating hospitals' catchment area (n = 2196). A validated food-frequency questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews to assess dietary intake in the previous year. We developed an SEAD adherence index with 9 key components: fresh fish excluding cod, cod, red meat and pork products, dairy products, legumes and vegetables, vegetable soup, potatoes, whole-grain bread, and wine. A score of 1 or 0 was assigned to each food consumed and reflected consumption that was higher or lower, respectively, than the sex-specific median in controls. RESULTS: After adjustment for the main confounders, a 1-point increment in the SEAD score was associated with a 10% reduced odds of AMI [odds ratio (OR): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.96]. In comparison with individuals in the lower quartile of the SEAD index (lowest adherence), those in the upper quartile had a 33% lower likelihood of experiencing an AMI (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.88; P for trend = 0.003). An SEAD index calculated by reverse scoring for red meat and pork products and potatoes led to an even stronger inverse association between the SEAD and AMI (OR for the upper compared with the lower quartile of SEAD index: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.52; P for trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the SEAD was associated with lower odds of nonfatal AMI. However, some but not all food components of the SEAD may contribute to the very low coronary mortality in northern Portugal and Galicia.
PMID: 20484454 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 
Resveratrol regulates human adipocyte number and function in a Sirt1-dependent manner. PDF Print E-mail


Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Resveratrol regulates human adipocyte number and function in a Sirt1-dependent manner.
Fischer-Posovszky P, Kukulus V, Tews D, Unterkircher T, Debatin KM, Fulda S, Wabitsch M.
Division of Pediatric EndocrinologyDiabetes University of Ulm Ulm Germany.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Caloric restriction leads to retardation of the aging processes and to longer life in many organisms. This effect of caloric restriction can be mimicked by resveratrol, a natural plant product present in grapes and red wine, which is known as a potent activator of sirtuin 1 [silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1)]. OBJECTIVES: One main effect of caloric restriction in mammals is a reduction of body fat from white adipose tissue. We sought to identify the effects of resveratrol on fat cell biology and to elucidate whether Sirt1 is involved in resveratrol-mediated changes. DESIGN: Human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome preadipocytes and adipocytes were used to study proliferation, adipogenic differentiation, glucose uptake, de novo lipogenesis, and adipokine secretion. Sirt1-deficient human preadipocytes were generated by using a lentiviral small hairpin RNA system to study the role of Sirt1 in resveratrol-mediated changes. RESULTS: Resveratrol inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and adipogenic differentiation in a Sirt1-dependent manner. In human adipocytes, resveratrol stimulated basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. De novo lipogenesis was inhibited in parallel with a down-regulation of lipogenic gene expression. Furthermore, resveratrol down-regulated the expression and secretion of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8. Sirt1 was only partially responsible for the regulation of resveratrol-mediated changes in adipokine secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data suggest that resveratrol influences adipose tissue mass and function in a way that may positively interfere with the development of obesity-related comorbidities. Thus, our findings open up the new perspective that resveratrol-induced intracellular pathways could be a target for prevention or treatment of obesity-associated endocrine and metabolic adverse effects.
PMID: 20463039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 
Reactions between saliva and wine PDF Print E-mail

Formation of nitric oxide, ethyl nitrite and an oxathiolone derivative of caffeic acid in a mixture of saliva and white wine.Takahama U, Tanaka M, Hirota S. Free Radic Res. 2010 Mar;44(3):293-303.

 

 

Department of Bioscience, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580, Japan.

Abstract Reactions of salivary nitrite with components of wine were studied using an acidic mixture of saliva and wine. The formation of nitric oxide (NO) in the stomach after drinking wine was observed. The formation of NO was also observed in the mixture (pH 3.6) of saliva and wine, which was prepared by washing the oral cavity with wine. A part of the NO formation in the stomach and the oral cavity was due to the reduction of salivary nitrite by caffeic and ferulic acids present in wine. Ethyl nitrite produced by the reaction of salivary nitrite and ethyl alcohol in wine also contributed to the formation of NO. In addition to the above reactions, caffeic acid in wine could be transformed to the oxathiolone derivative, which might have pharmacological functions. The results obtained in this study may help in understanding the effects of drinking wine on human health.

PMID: 20166894 [PubMed - in process]

 

 

 
March is National Nutrition Month PDF Print E-mail

Dr. John DeLuca proudly holds a poster of the first version of the Food and Drug Administration's Food Pyramid that included wine in moderation as part of a balanced diet.  You can read more about how wine became apart of this Food Pyramid and Dr. DeLuca in the WineDoctors' Archives section under Diet and Nutrition.

 

 
Folate Consumption and Alcohol Intake PDF Print E-mail

It has been two years since Creina Stockley from the Australian Wine Research Institute visited the subject of whether folate consumption can mitigate the risk of excessive alcohol intake in breast cancer incidence. It is unclear whether we have arrived at the absolute pathways suggestive of embryotoxity, carcinogenesis or neurotoxicity which implicate its deficiency as absolutely causal, but the evidence is mounting.

Last Updated on Monday, 12 April 2010 02:20
 
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