neurological health


The importance of alcoholic beverage type for suicide in Japan: A time-series analysis, 1963-2007. PDF Print E-mail


Drug Alcohol Rev. 2011 Mar 31. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2011.00300.x. [Epub ahead of print]
The importance of alcoholic beverage type for suicide in Japan: A time-series analysis, 1963-2007.
Norström T, Stickley A, Shibuya K.
Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (ECOHOST), London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Abstract
Background. Japan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world. Cohort analysis has suggested that alcohol consumption is a risk factor for suicide in Japan. However, this relationship has not been observed at the population level when a measure of per capita total alcohol consumption has been analysed. The present study employed a time-series analysis to examine whether these contradictory findings may be due to the existence of beverage-specific effects on suicide. Methods. An autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to assess the relationship between the consumption of different types of alcohol and suicide rates from 1963 to 2007. The data comprised age-adjusted suicide rates for the ages 15-69, and information on beverage-specific alcohol consumption per capita (15+). The unemployment rate was included as a control variable. Results. During 1963-2007, male suicide rates increased substantially whereas female rates decreased slightly. Consumption of distilled spirits was significantly related to male suicide rates (but not in women) with a 1 L increase in consumption associated with a 21.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.2-42.9) increase in male suicide rates. There was no statistically significant relationship between suicide and any other form of alcohol consumption (beer, wine, other alcohol). Conclusion. This is the first study that has shown an association between spirits consumption and male suicide in Japan. Potentially beneficial policy changes include increasing spirits prices through taxation, reducing the physical availability of alcohol and discouraging the practice of heavy drinking.[Norström T, Stickley A, Shibuya K. The importance of alcoholic beverage type for suicide in Japan: A time-series analysis, 1963-2007. Drug Alcohol Rev 2011].
© 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
PMID: 21450045 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 
Voluptuary habits and clinical subtypes of Parkinson's disease PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 13 September 2010 03:15

Mov Disord. 2010 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print]


Voluptuary habits and clinical subtypes of Parkinson's disease: The FRAGAMP case-control study.

Nicoletti A, Pugliese P, Nicoletti G, Arabia G, Annesi G, Mari MD, Lamberti P, Grasso L, Marconi R, Epifanio A, Morgante L, Cozzolino A, Barone P, Torchia G, Quattrone A, Zappia M.
Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy.
Abstract
We evaluated the possible association between smoking, coffee drinking, and alcohol consumption and Parkinson's disease (PD). The FRAGAMP study is a large Italian multicenter case-control study carried out to evaluate the possible role of environmental and genetic factors in PD. Adjusted ORs were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Smoking, coffee, and alcohol consumption were also considered as surrogate markers of lifestyle and analysis was carried out considering the presence of at least one, two, or three factors. This latter analysis was separately performed considering Tremor-Dominant (TD) and Akinetic-Rigid (AR) patients. Four hundred ninety-two PD patients (292 men and 200 women) and 459 controls (160 men and 299 women) were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis showed a significant negative association between PD and cigarette smoking (OR 0.51; 95%CI 0.36-0.72), coffee drinking (OR 0.61; 95%CI 0.43-0.87) and wine consumption (OR 0.62; 95%CI 0.44-0.86); a significant trend dose-effect (P < 0.05) has been found for all the factors studied. We have also found a trend dose-effect for the presence of at least one, two or three factors with a greater risk reduction (83%) for the presence of three factors. However, a different strength of association between TD and AR was found with a greater risk reduction for the AR patients. We found a significant inverse association between PD smoking, coffee, and alcohol consumption. When analysis was carried out considering the association of these factors as possible surrogate markers of a peculiar lifestyle the association was stronger for the AR phenotype. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

PMID: 20669181 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 
No correlation between maternal alcohol consumption and autism PDF Print E-mail

Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr 5. [Epub ahead of print]

Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders--a population-based prospective study of 80 552 children and their mothers.

Eliasen M, Tolstrup JS, Nybo Andersen AM, Grønbæk M, Olsen J, Strandberg-Larsen K.

National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark, Division of Epidemiology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark and Department of Epidemiology, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake >/=5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism. METHODS: Participants were 80 552 children and their mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1996 to 2002. Alcohol consumption was obtained by self-report during pregnancy. Information on ASD was obtained from the Danish Central Psychiatry Register. Follow-up ended on February 2008. Data were analysed by means of Cox regression. RESULTS: In total, 401 children were diagnosed with ASD and 157 with infantile autism. No association was found between average alcohol consumption and ASD or infantile autism, respectively. For binge drinking, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for ASD was 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.97] among women who binge drank once during pregnancy compared with women who did not binge drink. The corresponding HR for infantile autism was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.36-1.02). However, the HR for ASD was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.51-1.36) when restricting the analysis to first-time pregnancies conceived within 6 months of trying. No estimate was made for infantile autism due to low number of cases. No association was seen for more than one binge episode and for the timing of binge drinking. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support that a low prenatal alcohol exposure increases the risk of ASD or infantile autism. The lower risk for women who binge drank once during pregnancy is most likely non-causal.

PMID: 20371506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

 
Resveratrol's effect on the brain PDF Print E-mail

Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Anti-inflammatory activities of resveratrol in the brain: Role of resveratrol in microglial activation.

Zhang F, Liu J, Shi JS.

Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200071, China; Department of Pharmacology and Key Lab of Basic Pharmacology of Guizhou, Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003, China.

Abstract

Neuroinflammation is an important contributor to pathogenesis of neurological disorders, with microglial activation as a hallmark of neuroinflammation. Microglia serve the role of immune surveillance under normal conditions, but after brain damage or exposure to inflammation, microglia are activated and secret pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators. Sustained production of these factors contributes to neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroninflammation may become a promising therapeutic target for neurological disorders. Resveratrol, a non-flavonoid polyphenol rich in red wine and grapes, has beneficial health effects from its antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, resveratrol has been shown to protect against various neurological disorders in experimental models, including brain ischemia, seizures, and neurodegenerative disease models. This minireview summarized the anti-inflammatory activities of resveratrol in the brain from both in vivo and in vitro studies, and highlighted the inhibition of activated microglia as a potential mechanism of neuroprotection. The release of various pro-inflammatory factors, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the activation of signal pathways leading to neuroinflammation were discussed in relation to microglial activation. Taken together, microglia are an important target for anti-inflammatory activities of resveratrol in the brain. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

PMID: 20361959 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

 
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